|S.no||Paper Title||Journal Title|
|1||Total Ordering Defined on the Set of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers. vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 2015-2028, 2016||Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems (SCIE)|
|2||Total Ordering for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers. Complexity, 21 (S2): 54–66. doi:10.1002/cplx.21783
|Complexity (John Wiley Publishers) (SCIE)|
|3||A Linear Ordering on the Class of Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers. vol. 60, pp. 269–279, 2016.||Expert Systems With Applications (SCIE)|
|4||A Complete Ranking of Incomplete Trapezoidal Information. vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 3209-3225, 2016
|Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems (SCIE)|
|5||An Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making method based on Non-hesitance score for Interval Valued Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.
|Soft Computing (Springer) (SCIE)|
|6||A Complete Ranking of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers. vol. 8 (2), pp 237–254
|Fuzzy Information and Engineering (Elsevier)|
|7||Ranking of Incomplete Trapezoidal Information.
|Soft Computing (Springer) (SCIE)|
|8.||An Improved ranking method for comparing Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and its applications to Multicriteria Decision Making.
|Neural Computing and Applications (Springer) (SCIE)|
|9||A new Ranking Principle for Ordering trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. (Accepted)||Complexity (John Wiley & Hindawi Publishers) (SCIE)|
In this paper, a new total ordering on the class of IFNs  using double upper dense sequence in the interval [0, 1] which generalizes the total ordering on fuzzy numbers (FNs) is proposed and illustrated with examples. Examples are given to show the proposed method on this type of IFN is better than existing methods and this paper will give the better understanding over this new type of IFNs.
Firstly, A little more on why we have a leap year from The Telegraph, and/or watch this video from Numberphile. We can also find details on Mathisfun. The Google Doodle for today celebrates Leap Y…
Source: February 29th
“Pythagorean triples” are integer solutions to the Pythagorean Theorem, a2 + b2 = c2. I like “triplets,” but “triples” seems to be the favored term. For a right triangle, the c side is the hypotenuse, the side opposite the right angle. The a side is the shorter of the two sides adjacent to the right angle. The first rules that I became aware of for determining a subset of Pythagorean triplets are as follows:
- Every odd number is the a side of a Pythagorean triplet.
- The b side of a Pythagorean triplet is simply (a2 – 1) / 2.
- The c side is b + 1.
Here, a and c are always odd; b is always even. These relationships hold because the difference between successive square numbers is successive odd numbers. Every odd number that is itself a square (and the square of every odd number is an odd number) thus makes for a Pythagorean triplet. Thus, the square of 7, 49, is the difference between576, the square of 24, and 625, the square of 25, giving us the triplet 7,24,25. Similarly, the square of 23, 529, is the difference between 69696, the square of 264, and 70225, the square of 265, giving us the triplet 23,264,265.
The simplest triplet in the table, 1,0,1, is not a triangle, and a>b, but it is a solution to the Pythagorean Theorem — a very trival one since n,0,n, where n is any number, works just as well (using 0 would even allow us to break Fermat’s Last Theorem).
Humans contain ‘alien’ genes not passed on from our ancestors, researchers have discovered.
The say we acquired essential ‘foreign’ genes from microorganisms co-habiting their environment in ancient times.
The study challenges conventional views that animal evolution relies solely on genes passed down through ancestral lines – and says the process could still be going on.
The research published in the open access journal Genome Biology focuses on the use of horizontal gene transfer, the transfer of genes between organisms living in the same environment.
‘This is the first study to show how widely horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs in animals, including humans, giving rise to tens or hundreds of active ‘foreign’ genes,’ said lead author Alastair Crisp from the University of Cambridge.
‘Surprisingly, far from being a rare occurrence, it appears that HGT has contributed to the evolution of many, perhaps all, animals and that the process is ongoing, meaning that we may need to re-evaluate how we think about evolution.’
It is well known in single-celled organisms and thought to be an important process that explains how quickly bacteria evolve, for example, resistance to antibiotics.
HGT is thought to play an important role in the evolution of some animals, including nematode worms which have acquired genes from microorganisms and plants, and some beetles that gained bacterial genes to produce enzymes for digesting coffee berries.
You’re not completely human, at least when it comes to your DNA. It turns out that humans may harbor as many as 145 genes that have jumped from bacteria and other organisms and made themselves at home in our genome.
Text Courtesy: News from Science
You’re not completely human, at least when it comes to the genetic material inside your cells. You—and everyone else—may harbor as many as 145 genes that have jumped from bacteria, other single-celled organisms, and viruses and made themselves at home in the human genome. That’s the conclusion of a new study, which provides some of the broadest evidence yet that, throughout evolutionary history, genes from other branches of life have become part of animal cells.
“This means that the tree of life isn’t the stereotypical tree with perfectly branching lineages,” says biologist Alastair Crisp of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, an author of the new paper. “In reality, it’s more like one of those Amazonian strangler figs where the roots are all tangled and crossing back across each other.”
Scientists knew that horizontal gene transfer—the movement of genetic information between organisms other than parent-to-offspring inheritance—is commonplace in bacteria and other simple eukaryotes. The process lets the organisms quickly share an antibiotic-resistance set of genes to adapt to an antibiotic, for instance. But whether genes have been horizontally transferred into higher organisms—like primates—has been disputed. Like in bacteria, it’s been proposed that animal cells could integrate foreign genetic material that’s introduced as small fragments of DNA or carried into cells by viruses. But proving that a bit of DNA in the human genome originally came from another organism is tricky.
Crisp and his colleagues analyzed the genome sequences of 40 different animal species, ranging from fruit flies and roundworms to zebrafish, gorillas, and humans. For each gene in the genomes, the scientists searched existing databases to find close matches—both among other animals and among nonanimals, including plants, fungi, bacteria, and viruses. When an animal’s gene more closely matched a gene from a nonanimal than any other animals, the researchers took a closer look, using computational methods to determine whether the initial database search had missed something.
In all, the researchers pinpointed hundreds of genes that appeared to have been transferred from bacteria, archaea, fungi, other microorganisms, and plants to animals, they report online today in Genome Biology. In the case of humans, they found 145 genes that seemed to have jumped from simpler organisms, including 17 that had been reported in the past as possible horizontal gene transfers.
“I think what this shows it that horizontal gene transfer is not just confined to microorganisms but has played a role in the evolution of many animals,” Crisp says, “perhaps even all animals.
The paper doesn’t give any hints as to how the genes—which now play established roles in metabolism, immune responses, and basic biochemistry—may have been transferred or the exact timeline of the jumps, he says. That will take more work.
The findings are critical to understanding evolution, says Hank Seifert, a molecular biologist at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. “This is a very well-done paper. They used all the latest data they could find, all the genomes in the databases,” he says. “It makes it clearer than ever that there has been a history, throughout evolution, of gene transfer between organisms.”
But not all agree that the new evidence is indisputable. “I see little here that is particularly convincing evidence for horizontal gene transfer,” says microbiologist Jonathan Eisen of the University of California, Davis. He doesn’t rule out that horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals is possible, but says that there are other explanations for the identified genes being present in only some branches of the evolutionary tree—a gene that existed in a far-off ancestor could have simply been lost in many relatives other than two seemingly unrelated species, for instance. “It is up to [the researchers] to exclude other, more plausible alternatives, and I just do not think they have done that.”
The strands of DNA inside human cells haven’t all been passed down from parent to child; some have jumped from other organisms.
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